The Southern Toadlet (Pseudophryne semimarmorata) has an olive to dark brown body covered with numerous small warts above and a black and white marbled appearance around the belly. The Southern Toadlet is found in damp habitats including woodlands, dry forests, shrubland, grassland and drainage lines. They are usually located in wet areas under rocks, logs or leaf litter.
The Southern Toadlet is located in southern Victoria, eastern Tasmania and south-east of South Australia. In Nillumbik Shire the species has been previously found in numerous locations. However, recently it has not been recorded at former sites and it appears to have drastically declined due to a number of threatening processes, including the drought. Recent records include small populations at three sites in Eltham South, along a gully in Bunjil Reserve and in gullies within the southern part Kinglake National Park.
This species is listed as vulnerable in Victoria where major threats to this toadlet appears to be associated with loss of suitable habitat due to the clearing of bushland, weed invasion, pollution of streams and wetlands and prolonged drought and drying of breeding sites. Bushfires are also a major concern for the Southern Toadlet within the Nillumbik Shire as they cause significant habitat loss.